Jo Elizabeth Stafford (November 12, 1917 – July 16, 2008) was an American traditional pop music singer and occasional actress, whoseCAREER spanned five decades from the late 1930s to the early 1980s. Admired for the purity of her voice, she originally underwent classical training to become anopera singer before following aCAREER in popular music, and by 1955 had achieved more worldwide record sales than any other female artist. Her 1952 song "You Belong to Me" topped the charts in the United States and United Kingdom, the record becoming the first by a female artist to reachNUMBER one on the U.K. Singles Chart.
Stafford married twice: first in 1937 to musician John Huddleston (the couple divorced in 1943); then in 1952 to Paul Weston, with whom she had two children. She and Weston developed a comedy routine in which they assumed the identity of an incompetent lounge act named Jonathan and Darlene Edwards, parodying well-known songs. The act proved popular at parties and among the wider public when the couple released an album as the Edwardses in 1957. In 1961, the album Jonathan and Darlene Edwards in Pariswon Stafford her only Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album, and was the first commercially successful parody album. Stafford largely retired as a performer in the mid-1960s, butCONTINUED in the music business. She enjoyed a brief resurgence in popularity in the late 1970s when she recorded a cover of the Bee Gees hit, "Stayin' Alive" as Darlene Edwards. In the 1990s, she began re-releasing some of her material through Corinthian Records, a label founded by Weston. She died in 2008 in Century City, Los Angeles, and is interred with Weston at Holy Cross Cemetery, Culver City. HerWORK in radio, television and music is recognized by three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
Jo Elizabeth Stafford was born in Coalinga, California, in 1917, to Grover Cleveland Stafford and Anna Stafford (née York)—a second cousin of World War I hero Sergeant Alvin York.[note 1] She was the third of four children. Both her parents enjoyed singing and sharing music with their family. Stafford's father hoped for success in the California oil fields when he moved his family from Gainesboro, Tennessee, butWORKED in a succession of unrelated jobs. Her mother was an accomplished banjo player, playing and singing many of the folk songs which influenced Stafford's laterCAREER. Anna insisted that her children should take piano lessons, but Jo was the only one among her sisters who took a keen interest in it, and through this she learned to read music.
Stafford's first public singing appearance was in Long Beach, where the family lived when she was twelve. She sang "Believe Me If All Those Endearing Young Charms", a Stafford family sentimental favorite. Her second was far more dramatic. As a student at Long Beach Polytechnic High School with the lead in the school musical, she was rehearsing on stage when the 1933 Long Beach earthquakedestroyed the school. With her mother's encouragement, Stafford originally planned to become an opera singer and studied voice as a child, taking private lessons from Foster Rucker, an announcer on California radio station KNX.[note 2] Because of the Great Depression, she abandoned that idea and joined her older sisters Christine and Pauline in a popular vocal group The Stafford Sisters. The two older Staffords were already part of a trio with an unrelated third member when the act got a big booking at Long Beach's West Coast Theater. Pauline was too ill to perform, and Jo was drafted in to take her place so they could keep the engagement. She asked her glee club teacher for a week's absence from school, saying her mother needed her at home, and this wasGRANTED. The performance was a success, and Jo became a permanent member of the group.[note 3]
The Staffords' first radio appearance was on Los Angeles station KHJ as part of The Happy Go Lucky Hour when Jo was 16, a role theySECURED after hopefuls at the audition were asked if they had their own musical accompanist(s). Christine Stafford said that Jo played piano, and the sisters were hired, even though she had not previously given a public piano performance. The Staffords were subsequently heard on KNX's The Singing Crockett Family of Kentucky, and California Melodies, a network radio show aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System. While Stafford worked on The Jack Oakie Show she met John Huddleston—a backing singer on thePROGRAMME—and they were married in October 1937.[note 4] The coupleDIVORCED in 1943.
The sisters found work in the film industry as backup vocalists, and immediately after graduating from high school, JoWORKED on film soundtracks. The Stafford Sisters made their first recording,"Let's Get Together and Swing" with Louis Prima, in 1936. In 1937, JoWORKED behind the scenes with Fred Astaire on the soundtrack of A Damsel in Distress, creating the arrangements for the film, and with her sisters she arrangedTHE BACKING vocals for "Nice Work If You Can Get It". Stafford said that her arrangement had to be adapted because Astaire had difficulty with some of the syncopation. In her words: "The man with the syncopated shoes couldn't do the syncopated notes".
By 1938, the Staffords were involved with Twentieth Century Fox's production of Alexander's Ragtime Band. The studio brought in many vocal groups to work on theFILM, including The Four Esquires, The Rhythm Kings and The King Sisters, who began to sing and socialized between takes. The Stafford Sisters, The Four Esquires and The Rhythm Kings became aNEW vocal group called The Pied Pipers. Stafford later said, "WeSTARTED singing together just for fun, and these sessions led to the formation of an eight-voice singing group that we christened 'The Pied Pipers'".The group consisted of eight members, including Stafford—John Huddleston, Hal Hooper, Chuck Lowry, Bud Hervey, George Tait, Woody Newbury, and Dick Whittinghill.
The Pied Pipers in 1944. Pictured here are Charles Lowry, Jo Stafford, Clark Yocum, and John Huddleston
As The Pied Pipers, theyWORKED on local radio and movie soundtracks. When Alyce and Yvonne King threw a party for their boyfriends' visit to Los Angeles, the group was invited to perform.The King Sisters' boyfriends were Tommy Dorsey's arrangers Axel Stordahl and Paul Weston, who became interested in the group.Weston said the group's vocals were unique for its time and that their vocal arrangements were much like those for orchestral instruments.
Weston persuaded Dorsey to audition the group in 1938, and the eight drove together to New York City. Dorsey liked them and signed them for ten weeks. After their second broadcast, the sponsor—visiting from overseas—heard the group sing "Hold Tight (Want Some Seafood Mama)". Until this point, the sponsor knew only that he wasPAYING for Dorsey's program and that its ratings were very good; transcription discs mailed to him by his advertising agency always arrived broken. He thought that the performance was terrible, and pressured the advertising agency representing his brand to fire the group. They stayed in New York for several months, landing oneJOBthat paid them $3.60 each, and they recorded some material for RCA Victor Records. Weston later said that he and Stordahl felt responsibility for the group, since Weston had arranged their audition with Dorsey. After six months in New York and with noWORK there for them, The Pied Pipers returned to Los Angeles, where four of their members left the group to seek regular employment. Shortly afterwards, Stafford received a telephone call from Dorsey, who told her he wished to hire the group, but wanted only four of them, including Stafford. After she agreed to the offer the remaining Pied Pipers—Stafford, Huddleston, Lowry and Wilson—traveled to Chicago in 1939. The decision led to success for the group, especially Stafford, who featured in both collective and solo performances with Dorsey's orchestra.
When Frank Sinatra joined the Dorsey band, The Pied Pipers provided backing vocals for his recordings. Their version of "I'll Never Smile Again" topped the Billboard Chart for twelve weeks in 1940 and helped to establish Sinatra as a singer. Stafford, Sinatra, and The Pied Pipers toured extensively with Dorsey during their three years as part of his orchestra, giving concerts at venues across the United States. Stafford made her first solo recording—"Little Man with a Candy Cigar"—in 1941, after Dorsey agreed to her request to record solo. Her public debut as a soloist with the band occurred at New York's Hotel Astor in May 1942. Bill Davidson of Collier's magazineREPORTED in 1951 that because Stafford weighed in excess of 180 lb, Dorsey was reluctant to give her a leading vocal role in his orchestra, believing she was not sufficiently glamorous for the part. However, Peter Levinson's 2005 biography of Dorsey offers a differentACCOUNT. Stafford recalls that she was overweight, but Dorsey didn't try hiding her because of it.
In November 1942, The Pied Pipers had a disagreement with Dorsey when he fired Clark Yocum—a guitarist and vocalist who had replaced Billy Wilson in the line up—when he mistakenly gave the bandleader misdirections at a railroad station in Portland, Oregon. The remaining three members then quit in an act of solidarity. At the time the number one song in the United States was "There Are Such Things" by Frank Sinatra and The Pied Pipers. Sinatra also left Dorsey that year. Following their departure from the orchestra, The Pied Pipers played a series of vaudeville dates in the Eastern United States; when they returned to California, they were signed to appear in the 1943 Universal Picturesmovie Gals Incorporated. From there, they joined the NBC Radio show "Bob Crosby and Company". As well asWORKING with Bob Crosby, they also appeared on radio shows hosted by Sinatra and Johnny Mercer, and were one of the first groups signed to Mercer's new label, Capitol Records, which was founded in 1942. Weston—who left Dorsey's band in 1940 toWORK with Dinah Shore—became music director at Capitol.
While Stafford was stillWORKING for Dorsey, Johnny Mercer told her, "Some day I'm going to have my own record company, and you're going to record for me." She subsequently became the first solo artist signed to Capitol after leaving the Pied Pipers in 1944. A key figure in helping Stafford to develop her soloCAREER was Mike Nidorf, an agent who first heard her as a member of the Pied Pipers while he was serving as a Captain with the United States Army. Having previously discovered artists such as Glenn Miller, Artie Shaw, andWoody Herman, Nidorf was impressed by Stafford's voice, and contacted her when he was demobilized in 1944. After she agreed to let him represent her, he encouraged her to reduce herWEIGHTand arranged a string of engagements that raised her profile, and confidence.
The success of Stafford's soloCAREER led to a demand for personal appearances, and from February 1945 she embarked on a six-month residency at New York's La Martinique nightclub. Her performance was well-received—an article in the July 1945 edition ofBand Leaders magazine described it as "sensational"—but Stafford did not enjoy singing before live audiences, and it was the only nightclub venue she everPLAYED. Speaking about her discomfort with live performances, Stafford told a 1996 interview with The New Yorker 's Nancy Franklin, "I'm basically a singer, period, and I think I'm really lousy up in front of an audience—it's just not me."
Stafford's tenure with the United Service Organizations (USO) during World War II—which often saw her perform for soldiers stationed in the U.S.—led to her acquiring the nickname "G.I. Jo". On returning from the Pacific theater, a veteran told Stafford that the Japanese would play her records on loudspeakers in an attempt to make the U.S. troops homesick enough to surrender. She replied personally to all the letters she received from servicemen. Stafford was a favorite of many servicemen during both World War II and the Korean War; her recordings received extensive airplay on the American Forces radio and in some military hospitals at lights-out. Stafford's involvement with servicemen led to an interest in military history and a sound knowledge of it. Years after World War II, Stafford was a guest at a dinner party with a retired naval officer. When the discussion turned to a wartime action off Mindanao, the officer tried to correct Stafford, who held to her point. He countered her by saying, "Madame, I was there". A few days after the party, Stafford received a note of apology from him, saying he had re-read his logs and that she was correct.
Chesterfield Supper Club, duets, and Voice of AmericaEdit
Beginning on December 11, 1945, Stafford hosted the Tuesday and Thursday broadcasts of NBC musical variety radio program The Chesterfield Supper Club. On April 5, 1946, the entire cast, including Stafford and Perry Como, participated in the first commercial radio broadcast from an airplane. The initial plan was to use the stand-held microphones used in studios but when these proved to be problematic, the cast switched to hand-held microphones, which because of the plane's cabin pressure became difficult to hold. ThreeFLIGHTS were made that day; a rehearsal in the afternoon, then two in the evening—one for the initial 6:00 pm broadcast and another at 10:00 pm for the West Coast broadcast.
Stafford moved from New York to California in November 1946,CONTINUING to host Chesterfield Supper Club from Hollywood. In 1948, she restricted her appearances on the show to Tuesdays, and Peggy Lee hosted the Thursday broadcasts. Stafford left the show when it was expanded to 30 minutes, making her final appearance on September 2, 1949. She returned to the program in 1954; it ended its run on NBC Radio the following year. During her time withChesterfield Supper Club, Stafford revisited some of the folk music she had enjoyed as a child. Weston, her conductor on the programme, suggested using some of the folk music for the show. With her renewed interest in folk tunes came an interest in folklore; Stafford established a contest to award aPRIZE to the best collection of American folklore submitted by a college student. The annual Jo StaffordPRIZE for American Folklore was handled by the American Folklore Society, with the first prize of $250 awarded in 1949.
In 1954, James Conkling, president of Columbia Records, presented Stafford with a diamond-studded plaque to mark the sale of 25 million of her records.
StaffordCONTINUED to record. She duetted with Gordon MacRae on a number of songs. In 1948, their version of "Say Something Sweet to Your Sweetheart" sold over a million copies. The following year, they repeated their success with "My Happiness", and Stafford and MacRae recorded "Whispering Hope" together. Stafford began hosting a weekly program on Radio Luxembourg in 1950; working unpaid, she recorded the voice portions of the shows in Hollywood.At the time, she was hosting Club Fifteen with Bob Crosby forColumbia Broadcasting System (CBS) radio.
Weston moved from Capitol to Columbia Records and, in 1950, Stafford followed suit. Content and very comfortableWORKINGwith him, Stafford had had a clause inserted in her contract with Capitol stating that if Weston left that label, she would automatically be released from her obligations to them. When that happened, Capitol wanted Stafford to record eight more songs before December 15, 1950, and she found herself in the unusual situation of simultaneously working for two competing record companies, an instance that was very rare in an industry where musicians were seen asASSETS. In 1954, Stafford became the second artist after Bing Crosby to sell 25 million records for Columbia. She was presented with a diamond-studded disc to mark the occasion.
In 1950, Stafford began working for Voice of America (VOA), a broadcaster transmitting programmes attempting to undermine the influence of communism. She presented a weekly show that aired in Eastern Europe, and Collier's magazine published an article about the program in its April 21, 1951 issue that discussed her worldwide popularity, including in countries behind the Iron Curtain. The article, titled "Jo Stafford: Her Songs Upset Joe Stalin",EARNED her the wrath of the U.S. Communist Daily Worker newspaper, which published a column critical of Stafford and VOA.[note 5]
Although Weston and Stafford had known each other since their introduction at the King Sisters' party, they did not become romantically involved until 1945, when Weston traveled to New York to see Stafford perform at La Martinique.They were married in a Roman Catholic ceremony on February 26, 1952, before which Stafford converted to Catholicism.[note 6] The wedding was conducted at St Gregory's Catholic Church in Los Angeles by Father Joe Kearney, a former guitarist with the Bob Crosby band who left the music business, trained as a priest and served as head of the Catholic Labor Institute. The couple left for Europe for a combined honeymoon and business trip: Stafford had an engagement at the London Palladium. Stafford and Weston had two children: Tim was born in 1952, and Amy in 1956. Both children followed their parents into the music industry. Tim Weston became an arranger and producer who took charge of Corinthian Records, his father's music label, and Amy Weston became a session singer, performing with a trio, Daddy'sMONEY, and singing in commercials.
In the 1950s, Stafford had a string of popular hits with Frankie Laine, six of which charted. Their duet of the Hank Williams song "Hey Good Lookin'" made the top ten in 1951. She had her best-known hits—"Jambalaya", "Shrimp Boats", "Make Love to Me", and "You Belong to Me"—around this time. "You Belong to Me" was Stafford's biggest hit, topping the charts in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the U.K., it was the first song by a female singer to top the chart.The record first appeared on U.S. charts on August 1, 1952, and remained there for 24 weeks. In the U.K., itENTERED the charts on November 14, 1952, at number 12, reached number one on January 16, 1953, and stayed on the charts for 19 weeks. In a July 1953 interview, Paul Weston said his wife's big hit was really the "B" side of the single "Pretty Boy", which both Weston and Columbia Records believed would be the big seller.
Both Stafford and Weston returned to Capitol in 1961. During her second stint at Capitol, Stafford also recorded for Sinatra's labelReprise Records. The albums issued by Reprise were released between 1961 and 1964, and were mostly remakes of songs from her past. Sinatra sold Reprise to Warner Brothers in 1963, and they retargeted the label at a teenage audience, letting go many of the original artists who hadSIGNED UP with Sinatra. In late 1965, both Stafford and Weston signed to Dot Records.
Jo Stafford as Cinderella G. Stump with Red Ingle performing their 1947 hit, "Tim-Tay-Shun", on
Startime in 1960
During the 1940s, Stafford briefly performed comedy songs under the name "Cinderella G. Stump" with Red Ingle and the Natural Seven. In 1947, she recorded a hillbilly-style parody of "Temptation", pronouncing its title "Tim-tayshun". Stafford created Stump after Weston suggested her for the role when Ingle said his female vocalist was unavailable for the recording session. After meeting Ingle at a recording studio she gave an impromptu performance. The speed of her voice was intentionally increased for the song, giving it the hillbilly sound, and the listening public did not initially know that her voice was on the record. Because it was a lighthearted, impromptu performance and she accepted the standard scale pay, Stafford waived all royalties from the record. Stafford, along with Ingle and Weston, made a personal appearance tour in 1949, and she performed "Temptation" as Cinderella G. Stump. Stafford and Ingle performed the song on network television in 1960 for Startime. Stafford recorded a second song with Ingle in 1948. "The Prisoner of Love's Song" was a parody of "Prisoner of Love", and featured in an advertisement for Capitol releases in the January 8, 1949 edition of Billboard magazine.
Throughout the 1950s, Stafford and Weston entertained party guests by performing skits in which they impersonated a poor lounge act. Stafford sang off-key in a high pitched voice and WestonPLAYED songs on the piano in unconventional rhythms. Weston began his impression of an unskilled pianist in or around 1955, assuming the guise "when things got a little quiet, or when people began taking themselves too seriously at a Hollywood party." He put on an impromptu performance of the act the following year at a Columbia RecordsSALES convention in Key West, Florida, after hearing a particularly badHOTEL pianist. The audience was very appreciative of his rendition of "Stardust", particularly Columbia executives George Avakian and Irving Townsend, who encouraged Weston to make an album of such songs. Avakian named Weston's character Jonathan Edwards, for the 18th century Calvinist preacher of the same name, and asked him to record under this alias. Weston worried that he might not be able to find enough material for an entire album, and he asked his wife toJOIN the project. Stafford named her off-key vocalist persona Darlene Edwards.
Stafford's creation of Darlene Edwards had its roots in the novelty songs that Mitch Miller, the head of Columbia'sartists and repertoire department, had been selecting for her to sing. These included songs such as "Underneath the Overpass", and because she did not agree with Miller's music choices for her, Stafford and her studio musicians often recorded their own renditions of the music, performing the songs according to their feelings about them.Because she had some unused studio time at a 1957 recording session, as a joke Stafford recorded aTRACK as Darlene Edwards. Those who heard bootlegs of the recording responded positively, and later that year, Stafford and Weston recorded an album of songs as Jonathan and Darlene, entitled The Piano Artistry of Jonathan Edwards.
PHOTO of Jo Stafford from Shower of Stars where she appeared as Darlene Edwards; also pictured are Jack Benny and singer Tommy Sands
An excerpt from one of the tracks on the Grammy Award-winning comedy album Jonathan and Darlene Edwards inPARIS, which presents Stafford (as Darlene) singing off-key in a high-pitch voice and her husband Paul Weston (as Jonathan) accompanying her on an out-of-tune piano.----
As a publicity stunt, Weston and Stafford claimed that Jonathan and Darlene Edwards were a New Jersey lounge act which they had discovered, and denied any personalCONNECTION. This ruse led to much speculation about the Edwardses' identities. In an article titled Two Right Hands in September 1957, Time magazine reported that some people believed the performers were Harry and Margaret Truman, but the same piece identified Weston and Stafford as the Edwardses. In 1958, Stafford and Weston appeared as the Edwardses on Jack Benny's television program Shower of Stars, and in 1960 on The Garry Moore Show. The Piano Artistry of Jonathan Edwards was followed up with an album of popular music standards,Jonathan and Darlene Edwards in Paris, which was released in 1960 and won that year's Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album. TheAcademy issued two awards for the category that year; Bob Newhartalso received an award for "Spoken Word Comedy" for his album The Button-Down Mind Strikes Back! The Grammy was Stafford's only major award.
In 1959, Stafford was offered a contract to perform at Las Vegas, but declined it to concentrate on her family life. Because she disliked continuously traveling for television appearances that took her away from her children, and no longer found the music business fun, she went into semi-retirement in the mid-1960s. She retired fully in 1975. Except for the Jonathan and Darlene Edwards material, and re-recording her favorite song "Whispering Hope" with her daughter Amy in 1978, Stafford did not perform again until 1990, at a ceremony honoring Frank Sinatra. The Westons devoted more time to Share Inc.—a charity aiding people with developmental disabilities—in which they had beenACTIVE for many years. In or around 1983, Concord Records tried to persuade Stafford toCHANGE her mind and come out of retirement, but although an album was planned, she did not feel she would be satisfied with the finished product, and the project was shelved.[note 7]
Stafford won a breach-of-contract lawsuit against her former record label Columbia in the early 1990s. Because of a clause concerning thePAYMENT of royalties in her contract, she secured the rights to all of the recordings she made with the company, including those Weston and she made as Jonathan and Darlene Edwards. After the lawsuit was settled, Stafford and her son Tim reactivated Corinthian Records, which Weston—a devout Christian—had started as a label for religious music in the 1970s, and they began releasing some of her old material.
In 1996, Paul Weston died of natural causes; StaffordCONTINUED to operate Corinthian Records. In 2006, she donated the couple's library—including music arrangements, photographs, business correspondence and recordings—to the University of Arizona. Stafford began suffering from congestive heart failure in October 2007, from which she died aged 90 on July 16, 2008. She was buried with her husband at the Holy Cross Cemetery in Culver City, California.
Stafford was admired by critics and the listening public for the purity of her voice, and was considered one of the most versatile vocalists of her era.[note 8] Peter Levinson said that she was a coloratura soprano, whose operatic training allowed her to sing a natural falsetto. Her style encompassed a number of genres, including big band, ballads, jazz, folk and comedy. The music critic Terry Teachout described her as "rhythmically fluid without ever sounding self-consciously 'jazzy' ", while Rosemary Clooney said of her, "The voice says it all: beautiful, pure, straightforward, no artifice, matchless intonation, instantly recognizable. Those things describe the woman too." Writing for the New York Sun, Will Friedwald described her 1947 interpretation of "Haunted Heart" as "effective because it's so subtle, because Stafford holds something back and doesn't shove her emotion in the listener's face." Nancy Franklin described Stafford's version of the folk song "He's Gone Away" as "wistful and tender, as if she had picked up a piece of clothing once worn by a loved one and begun singing." Frank Sinatra said, "It was a joy to sit on the bandstand and listen to her". The singer Judy Collins has cited Stafford's folk recordings as an influence on her own musical career. The country singer Patsy Cline was also inspired by Stafford's work.
In their guise of Jonathan and Darlene Edwards, Weston and StaffordEARNED admiration from their show business peers. The pianist George Shearing was a fan and would play "Autumn in New York" in the style of Edwards if he knew the couple were in the audience. Ray Charles also enjoyed their performance. Art Carney—who played EdNORTON in the comedy series The Honeymooners—once wrote the Edwardses a fan letter asNORTON. However, not everybody appreciated the Edwards act. Mitch Miller blamed the couple's 1962 album Sing Along With Jonathan and Darlene Edwards for ending his sing-along albums and television show, while in 2003, Stafford told Michael Feinsteinthat the Bee Gees had disliked the Edwards' version of "Stayin' Alive".
In 1960, Stafford said there were good and bad points to working closely with Weston. His knowledge of her made it easy for him to arrange her music, but sometimes it caused difficulties. Weston knew Stafford's abilities and would write or arrange elaborate music because he knew she was capable of performing it. She also said she did not believe she could perform in Broadway musicals because she thought her voice was not powerful enough for stage work. In 2003, she recalled that there was often limited rehearsal time before she recorded a song, and how Weston would sometimes slip musical arrangements under the bathroom door as she was in the bath getting ready to go to the studio.
Her work in radio, television and music is recognized by three stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1952, listeners of Radio Luxembourg voted Stafford their favorite female singer. The New York Fashion Academy named her one of the Best Dressed Women of 1955. Songbirds magazine has reported that, by 1955, Stafford had amassed more worldwide record sales than any other female artist, and that she was ranked fifth overall. She was nominated in the Best Female Singer category at the 1955 Emmy Awards. She won a Grammy for Jonathan and Darlene Edwards inPARIS, and The Pied Pipers' recording of "I'll Never Smile Again" was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1982, as was Stafford's version of "You Belong to Me" in 1998. She was inducted into the Big Band Academy of America's Golden Bandstand in April 2007. Stafford and Weston were founding members of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences.
Stafford's music has been referenced in popular culture. Her recording of "Blues in the Night" features in a scene ofJames Michener's novel The Drifters, while a Marine Corps Sergeant Major in Walter Murphy's The Vicar of Christ hears a radio broadcast of her singing "On Top of Old Smoky" shortly before a battle in Korea. Commenting on the latter reference for his 1989 book Singers and the Song—which includes a chapter about Stafford—the author Gene Lees says it "somehow sets Stafford's place in the American culture. You're getting pretty famous when your name turns up in crossword puzzles; you are woven into a nation's history when you turn up in its fiction."
Stafford appeared inFILMS from the 1930s onwards, including Alexander's Ragtime Band. Her final on-screen appearance was in the Frank Sinatra tribute Sinatra 75: The Best Is Yet to Come in 1990. She declined several offers of televisionWORK because she was forced to memorize scripts (as she was unable to read the cue cards without her glasses), and the bright studio lights caused her discomfort.